This is one of the most important samskara in human life and it is to be done with AGNI SAKSHI. This samskara makes a person a gruhasta and he has to safeguard all other varnas and creatures.
In this ashrama he has to perform pancha yagyas i.e. desva yagya, rushi yagya,pitru yagya, manushya yagya and buta yagya. In this ashrama both husband and wife are equally responsible in performing all the yagyas and without each other it can be performed.
According to vaideeka vidhi marriage vidhana starts as under:
Boy enters the bride’s home along with relatives and offers new saree to the bride by chanting the mantra to accompany in his life till the end with pride and prosperity. This we call now as madhu parka saree.
The brinde’s father invites the groom and treat him as maha vishnu and offer madhu parka (made with ghee, milk and honey). His feet is washed with water kept ina plate by brinde’s parents. Then the groom is offered with 2nd set of yagyopaveetam and new madhu parka dhoti to wear. This dhoti is of 2 nos of untorn 8 moora dhoti symbolically he should not tore his better half in life.
After this both elders of the bride and groom will invite the bride to the vivaha vedika and in the meantime a 8 moora dhoti is kept as screen in between the boy and girl so that they should not each other until the sumuhurta period. The bride should made to sit facing west and boy facing east. The present day system of writing in the screen is totally forbidden.
Now the bride’s parents do maha sankalpa and chanting the pravara for 4 genrations including the bride and groom and give salankruta kanya danam to groom by keeping bride’s hand over groom’s hand with coconut in hand and pour water symbolically, the parents fully agreeing to loose all rights over the daughter and offering to the groom to upbring his family and traditions. Now, the bride’s father ask the groom to promise him that the he will take care of his daughter for undertaking dharma, to cherish the wealth, to fulfil his gruhasta dharma and finally to attain moksha and the groom in return has to promise thrice that he will safeguard her in all walks of life. This is actual ** danam in marriage ceremony. (DHARMECHA, ARTHECHA, KAAMECHA, MOKSHECHA NAATI CHARAAMI, NAATI CHARITAVYAM)
Then Jeera mixed with bellam (jeelakarra bellam) paste is given to both bride and groom. Now the priests wait for sumuhurta and until then they will chant mangala slokas with ending SUMURTE SAAVADHANA, SULAGNE SAAVADHANA, LAKSHMI NARAYANETI SAAVADHANA. When the specific muhurta period arrives, the jeelakarra bellam paste to be put on the centre part of the head of each other and they have to see each other centre place of the eye brow only. During this time the priest will chant mantra AGHORA CHAKSHU available in rig veda 10th mandala. According to vaideeka vidhi the both bride and groom has to see each other now only and not before. Keeping of the jeelakarra bellam on the centre head is to pass the electrical energy of each other into others soul. The mixture of jelakarra bellam can not be separataed once it is mixed and like that the husband and wife should mix in the life and live upto the traditions respecting each other’s values.
Next akshataropanam. Akshatas for this purpose is made separately i.e. segragating the full rice without any borken ends, mix haldi i.e. pasupu with ghee and mix throughly. In some regions instead of akshatas made with haldi they will add a little bit chuna also to make it rose color. Now the akshatas is poured into the palm of the bride kalasa with water is kept in the palm. Similarly the akshatas are also kept in the palm of groom. The bride after chanting the mantras by the priest and removing the kalasa will pour the akshatas into the head of groom without bringing her palm outside of boy’s hands. After this the boy will pour the akshatas into the girl. This is done thrice. But nowadayas, we are seeing paper balls, chamkies, flowers and what not including the foam is also used which is not allowed in vaideeka vivaha.
After this kankana dharana is to be done. If the groom is of Rig vedi, then both parents and elders of the families in pairs will assemble in round making the couple to stand in middle and two sets of the threads will be prepared by chanting the SURYA SAVITRI SUKTA CONTAINING 47 mantras highlighting the values of marriage. If the groom is of yajur veda this is not being done but the priest will prepare at the mandapa and get it. Then the kankana dhaarana is being done to safe guard both bride and groom. After this the groom will tie the mangalya into the neck of girl to show his right over the girl. This is not available in vaideeka maarga only neela mani bandhanam is allowed at the time of nagavalli programme. That is why there is no mantra for this ritual but only a sloka MANGALYAM TANTUNANENA MAMA JEEVANA HETUNA, KANTE BADNAMI SUBHAGE TWAM JEEVA SARADASSATAM.
IF the groom is of yajur veda, nutadi it is sanskrit name for plough, nowadays the priest keep a ruler with holes on both ends, keeps over the head of bride and one is kept by groom and in the second end the mangalya inserted and the water in the kalasa will be poured in drops so that it will pass through the hole of nutadi as well as mangalya fall over the head of bride with mantra purvakam. This is one type of promising by groom to bride that for plough two bulls are required and i will be the one and i invite you to the other so that both of us will uplift the family tradition and pitaras in a dharmic way.
Then The couple has to raise agni and with agni as sakshi, laaga homa is performed to please gandhaaravas, pusha and sun god then both will go round the agni promising to lead dharmika life only to uplift the pitaras of both side and perform all the vaidic yaagas specified in the sutra. Then the boy will adore metti (mettelu) to wife praying to divine for 7 times keeping her steps each time reciting one manthra on a grinding stone. Symbolically, it is promising each other that they will remain together like the stone. Each of the step is being done by going round to agni. This is called sapta padi. There is a saying in telugu YEDU ADUGULU KALISI NADISTE VALLU VEELLAI POTARU.
With this the marriage ceremony is over and the husband and wife status is attained to groom and bride. Now the bride is termed as sumangali.